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It is obvious that the task of such a work devolves upon native Greek scholars witness the labours of EASophocles, JlMa. I have ventured to undertake such an essay, and having devoted to it more than five whole years, now lay before my readers the fruits of my arduous and unremitting labours.

The plan and method of the work are simple. I have collected and critically sifted all information available, and eliminated, as far as possible, all theoretical speculations relating to the Indo-European and mythical stages of the language.

On a similar principle I deemed it unsafe to enlarge on the Greek dialects, seeing that not only their actual number and mutual connexion are still matters of speculation, but that in many cases they have not even left adequate relics to illustrate their individual character.

As a matter of fact, by the side of Attic they appear to have had but a temporary and local existence, and exerted no consequential iniluence on the subsequent history of the Greek language. These eliminations narrowed the sphere of my investigations principally to the Attic dialect. Not however to the Attic dialect of the fifth and fourth centuries B. But referring here to modem Greek or Neohellenic, I must distinctly explain that by this term I understand the popular speech which survives in the mouth of the Greek nation, not the literary or artificial style, which, as far as it deviates from popular speech, has been partly transmitted through the literature, partly revived or created by Neohellenic scribes and journalists, and as such, though indispensable for vi Digitized by Google PREFACE.

I have considered or rather laid under large contribution popular Neohellenic speech, first because it constitutes a lineal and unbroken continuation of c1assical Greek, preserving all the fundamental features of ancient grammar, in its wide sense, and thus throwing much light upon many problems and innumerable details of c1assical Greek; next because, unlike prehistoric or Indo-Germanic Greek, with its conjectural data, modern Greek with its actual data forms a sure basis for scientific or critical research; finally, because this often misjudged language proves to be the oldest living tongue, and thus deserves far more consideration than any Romanic or Teutonic tongue, however old, can claim in matters of comparative philology.

My original plan was to adhere as much as possible to the methods and theories generally received in our leading grammam, adopting even the Erasmian pronunciation to which, when an undergraduate in German universities, I had become a sincere convert , and merely to subjoin to each rule its postclassical and subsequent phases or vicissitudes.

But I had not advanced far in my research when I began to light upon phenomena which would not fit in well with the received theories.

And as these anomalies steadily increased in number, myoid beliefs, especially that in the Erasmian pronunciation, grew weaker in proportion. For I now began to see clearly that many a theory, old as well as modern, enjoyed almost canonical deference not because of its intrinsic merits, but rather because of the absence of a better theory.

It is in this way, and not by a preconceived plan, that the range and system of the present work gradually grew in my hands ; and with my present experience, I am not sure whether it might not have been better still if I had gone even further in the direction of emancipation.

For though I cannot claim to have everywhere established my own views to abeolute certainty, I do not feel much surer of many a doctrine now generally accepted as an old established fact. For after all the grammar of the Greek language has not been written.

The ancients 1 The proportion and mutual relation of the two forma of diction is synoptically illustrated in my Modem Greek DiotiolW’1 London, , John. These brief compendia then soon rose to canonical eminence, and 80 began to be copied generation after generation down to modern times, when the Greeks, with the capture of Constantinople, lost their national unity.

Some learned fugitives among them then came over to western Europe and introduced the rudimentary Greek grammar inherited from their ancestors and laid the seeds of the ‘Westem’ schooL The first act of this school, still in its infancy, was to do away with the traditional pronunciation-which reflects perhaps the least changed part of the language-and then to declare Greek a dead tongue.

My deviation from the current system, however, must not imply that I have built my work upon the speculative principles adopted by recent philologists. For while these neogrammarians can duly claim the credit of having overthrown the time-honoured but fundamentally erroneous theory that language is built up on a philosophical system, and that every grammatical phenomenon reflects an operation of the mind, they seem to me to be committing an equally serious mistake in another direction: for philosophy they have virtually substituted Indo-Germanic speculation, and in their zeal to viii Digitized by Google PBEl’ACE.

I have considered Greek in its distinct individuality, and striven to the beat of my ability to search the causes of each phenomenon or anomaly rather within its own domain and history than embark in alien and often indemoDStrable specuIatioDL Aa already indicated, my work is based essentially upon classical Attic, and 80 conside1’8 in a concise manner all eI! After the Introduction and the chapter on the Pronunciation which, I trust, wm prove acceptable to many an earnest and unprejudiced student, I take up every grammatical phenomenon and follow its gradual evolution down to the preseDt time.

As a matter of course, where it has withstood the in1luences of all put times without notable change, my f;jask has been comparatively easy, since I had either to attest its unbroken continuity through all ages by proofs taken from the intennediate periods, or merely to state the fact-when there could be no reasonable doubt-that the phenomenon under consideration still obtains in modern Greek, meaning of course the popular language of today, in particular 80uthem speech as defined in the Introduction f.

In all other cases where the thread of continuity did not reach the present period, my task has been more dilicult and often very arduous; for I had to search through each succeeding period either for its recovery or for its substitute. It often happened also as e. In such cases I had to ascertain whether it was a real novelty or a relic of ancieDt speech studiously excluded from the literarycompoaition. As a matter of course, I do not presume to have said the last word on all or most of these points, seeing that, even in the case of modem Greek, I cannot be reasonably expected to master, in all its details, the entire vocabulary and grammar of every single Neohellenic dialect, and I shall not be surprised it’ future investigation should prove that many a phenomenon, designated by me as extinct or peculiar to a particular dialect, still survives in one or more localities of Greece or Turkey.

All I can say is that I have carefully studied every detail, and that my constant aim has been to carry on my investigations in a spirit of absolute fairness and candour, without bias towards this or that form or stage of the language. I have therefore made no preferential distinction among classical, post-classi. If I have enlarged more fully on the later periods, it is because these stages, being lees explored, presented many points which were partly dark, partly new, partly debatable, and had to be established.

Speaking of modem Greek in particular, it will be remembered that besides its intrinsic value for the history of Greek, it possesses the merit of having been the very language spoken by nearly all the commentators and copiers through whom classical literature has reached us. These’ Byzantine’ senDee excerptors, commentators, copiers, ete.

I wished to do so, I should not have excluded from the sphere of my research the written style, but should, on the contrary, have selected this very form as the standard. I accepted the facts and reeuJ. In founding my work upon classical Attic, and discussing that phase of the language at a certain length, I may be charged with having embodied in the book much matter which is familiar to Greek scholars.

This method was, moreover, the only practicable one in a work professing to give a synoptical and connected history of the language, for it thus brings out in a clearer relief the traita and relations of its various stages and vicissitudes.

Besides it will be found that in numerous cases c1aaaica1 Greek receives new light from its post-claasical and even modem phases. To enumerate here all the new features of the work, or seek to justify them as well as some novel terms 80 g.

All these new pointa have been more conveniently explained in their proper pJaoes, and their nature and number can be easily traoed through the copious indexes which have been prepared with great pains, and will, it is hoped, be found very serviceable for all purposes. The only point which requires some explanation here is the adoption of a few abbreviations indicated by the capital letters.

For I have rather preferred to assign a precise date to a grammatical phenomenon with the risk of ooouionally erring in some detail, than to follow the usual broad periods and thus shelter myself behind such vague generalities as ‘classical,’ ‘post-classica1,’ ‘Byzantine,’ or the like, terms which surely do not convey a quite definite idea.

Whenever no precise date was obtainable from the general literature, from the inscriptions or papyri, in assigning to this or that period the first appearance, the spread, or the retreat of a phenomenon, I was guided by a combination of observations. Another point to which I desire to call attention is that I believe I have consulted, in almost every portion and detail, the latest authorities, and duly indicated their share of contribution to a theory adopted or discussed.

But in a work covering such a wide space, and containing an immense number of details and references; a work which moreover embraces the living language of to-day, it may well happen that in some of my views I have been anticipated by others not expressly mentioned.

In such a case, I believe myself entitled to leniency, especially if the omission lies within the period of modem Greek, because, this being my nativ! To conclude, I am far from presuming to have adequately dealt with my subject.

There may be cases of inconsistency, errors of judgement, and errors of fact. At any rate, it represents the fruits of a long and arduous labour, a labour I have undertaken and performed throughout with earnest and unabated zeal in the interest of science and truth. As the MS has been prepared, almost entirely, in the Reading Room of the British Museum, I gladly avail myself of the occasion to return my acknowledgements to its officials of every grade, for their friendly and ever willing assistance in all matters of inquiry.

I further own my gratitude to several other personal friends, for their occasional help by way of suggestion or rectification, especially to Mr. William Wills, of the Inner Temple, for reading part of the proofs.

Above all I desire to tender my grateful thanks to Miss O. Sandwith, a former pupil of mine in Crete, and now a proficient Greek scholar, who in times of great pressure very kindly volunteered to copy more than half the MS, and gave me the benefit of many a valuable suggestion.

I finally acknowledge my great obligation to Mr. Horace Hart, the Controller of the Oxford University Press, whose ungrudging willingness to have the entire MS set in type enabled me, during the print, to improve the book in every respect. Transitional Period A. Neohellenic Period A. Script Alphabet. PronunciatIon 0 the Sonants I, B.

Aapiratae and Mediae B. General Phonopathy Cl. Introductory Remarks b. Amplification of Words c. Consonantal Phonopathy Consonantism A. Liquids and Nasals. And according as the postpositive vowel is or is not sounded, the diphthongs are called proper ,wptlU or spurious K 1TO. Spurious diphthongs: q. Scaurus, 16, 10 HKeil, vii : ‘lJ”tiqui quoque Ormeorvm hanc sabam ai per tu i.

FBlass Pron. ESltoberts f. OHoffmann ii. The ancient o TowW, or rather 2ftM. Xftllll, ,gTfpoP, au. TOO It. So too Prisoian n. It The pronuncia. UoM by the following narrative : , I believe that it ill known to few in what circumstances EraemUllwae indnced to write on the correct pronunciation. It reads a8 follows 0-” I have heard K. The dispute at present turns mainly on the aapiration ‘ , which is unknown to N; on the ‘quantity,’ of which N makes no account but pronounces all sona.

Eraamua, however, having found out the trick practised upon him , never afterwards used that method of pronouncing, nor did he direct those of his friends, with whom he was more familiar, to follow it.

In proof of this ll. Butgerua used to show a eoheme. Simon and St. The whole subject bearing on the genesis and history of the Eraamian doctrine is ably and lucidly set forth by JGennadioa in the N. PI Aa a matter of course, regard is had here to that Era. German in Germany, French in.

France, and so forth. This incouiaten’ AnrJo. German pronunciation therefore is eDtirel,y disregarded here. Oonvenely, while Eraamiana sound. Tha, to leave uide the peculiar phonology of northerD 8p88Ch C»9 If.

The criteria and other data which at the present time each echool adduces in support of its doctrine are: linguistic and dialectal JI8o! Nor is the information derived from ancient writers and theorists more valuable, aeeiDg that in most of their remarks-which are incidentaltheee a. In the case of the grammarians, moreover, it must be bome in mind that they a. Be it further remembered that, as they are not actual Digitized by Google sa-ssb.

A, hardly considered by writers, and utterly ignored by theorists or I phUologera. When in the course of time the Stoics took up the IUbject of philOlOphical or higher grammar and finally the term made ita appearance, it was conceived.. Am” Aall J4″.. I9mi-vowela 25b of which z!

OI pl” ‘l’d1le.. Aii ,. AIiw, ‘.. MEizONA ,,. Ai Ilea ,. Is IJpaxvrl””. In biB D. IS oydp 8t6lfPC”or 4X16, I, 6 – BKeil ‘ri. The various part. Thrax: I dvq.. And these requisites of a ‘grammarian’ are thus defined bybi8 ecboliut: p4por lcopB. Accordingly when we peruee ancient texta for information.. Compere Sext.

Ital ‘”if 7’0W0u BuN, I, But even here we must draw a line of distinction between public and private documentl. In point of fact, the ancienta were more familiar with tbe received or hiBtorical orthography than iB the caae with us nowada,.. The absence of. This confusion may be illustrated by the following specimens: I. E and El are very frequently interchanged from the part ot the rvt’ B. S04 on Attio -. PXretachmer f. CIA ii. IVt B. Hell vii. Hell m. H’ , 9.

Ur ib. TfI ib. I 1,37 Kprtrl w. Ccirou ib. Still, BB in the absence of any explanation that of tHl-i being a fanciful hypothesis irreconcilable with Greek phonology even conjectures are allowable, I believe that we can detect a plausible explanation of the phenomenon in the generalization of the above principle of the monophthongiZlltion of the diphthongs 33b 1r.

We have Been there that, under the BtI’8llll of accent, the ptepoeitive vowel of the diphthonga.. V’l B. XoipuAos Bull Corr. IIIf B. IC’os Bull. Aias ib. IJMpa for 8upa , IIp2 A.. BflSwdPX’ls for -Bv. CWeasely N. Jfjqll ib. AplTfpor for ;’,,- ib. CWessely PlOl. Pv;fJ: but then oariou17 Greek, is oftAm van. XWpa, T’ipl for. For the former authorities are mialed by the palatal BOund of the preceding” Y cp.

Under Aeolic particularly Boeotiu? So, 7. SI, 7. I70i Myol for “. Texts p. Imf”‘pal , TVaW’l” Gr. I, ii. CIA i. KaptlPqs lb. Hell Stud.. Megalopolia E 23, twice. Lo1m’8 Pap. SS, ll-IS, thrice. IJ:If’ B. C1W CIA ii. PatJNPwr Bull. KaAovNcnor for Calvisius Bull. TtttUp’or CIG FBlaas HermeD. IJa, Gr. FGKenyoD C1aas. TextS p. Berlin ,32 beside ‘Aprra r ib. Berlin ,3. Berhn , Cii,f”, OD a coin! Imhoof-Blumer Abhd!. Berlin Nniar Berl Aka. Col Kvpl! Ntr”lM Aaroupyla from A”,r. The mMt u. I-t- ItaIltC”.

Compare Heqah. J[, PbiL XVI. See 26 f. This phenomenon has already been fully investigated in 28 ft’. Regarding the almost regular practice in Latin of transliterate ing ‘I by. HelL p. OIl HCollitz. IS29t 2H. II ib. VUlt A. I” cA”. OplOf ib. The argument for the monophthongal pronunciation ef 01 in. J2; olotlllCono Xen. For the strikingly frequent interchange of 01 and v in G-B times see 29 and The phonetic interrelation of DC and , in tile yt B.

Jvnpoc riAa, lB AawlIN w. W “”, This aaaociatiOB of termiDal I would be UDaCCOuntable for A, if we were to aaaume anothe rlndependent I before it, that is if the , of the preceding diphthong contained a distinct poatpoeitive i-sound. Bl’jO”Ctur, Un,. Orrc for dlTf. So further M3U1 elL iv. Spinll for -‘r’ ib. Texts A or t1″eely dropping every interaonantio I 20″.

ZtniP M -. A pnaral survey of the pronunciation ot the in t1Ia V-Vzta A. Here then we And ib. CoIDpare f’tuother since B. ThEckinger 8′. Llkewi8e such miaapelliDp 88 ItAIor and ‘. IIoDd before the paJa. TpnnlallOv Gr. This is moreover conceded by Eraam. Da invariably as d and b respectively, while traditioniata sound them as buzzes or voiced tA and tI, except after a nasal, where J?

See also f. For the former. The only reasonable objection that could be raised is that the spelling Jij fj.

Jrij ,. On the other hand, for the pronunciation of fJ as labiodental tI, a whole aeriez of evidence can be adduced.

First, the common Pron. I For A oompan: ‘A”,. It, 6 P3 Boo. Though there is no dispute aa to the nature of the BOund of the above consommta, it will be advantageous to consider them briefly here. It ia unanimou81, ‘ conceded FBl Pron. Sg that the ancient Greeks, like their deecendants now, pronounced , with the tip of the tongue. PL Crat. D ore For CEraamiana aaaume the BOund of. But this proves only that the grammarians refer to the actual occurrence in written composition Nor does the other Era.

De comp. Associated with the letters proper are a number of complementarysymbols which serve to modulate or regulate the voice in expressing a word or sentence. Leaving aside “I and w, also , 17 b , such readifag marks are generally absent from the Greek inscriptions and the earlier papyri, and though we can trace at all events some of them to the IV!

Quantitylluka: – the p. The rough Ci. See ‘la if. Also iDitial p is now marked with the rough breathing 64 , while pp may be written either pp or more commoruy simply pp. Their original form,.. A1kman, lliaa of Bankea , was.. Eucleidian inscriptions show a great irregularity regarding this aymbol For very frequently it ia abaent 1 , still oftener it is added, but even then not alwaya in the right place, according to our present notions; sometimes, too, it ia put before erJWy initial vowel as CIA i.

See 84″ App. See also ESRoberta f. Couvane17, m aD iD. Greek b80k to the ID. HDDarbi8hire 24 f. Like all other frpocnfllicu, thiS Iifrn was devised by the grammarians and placed, as a diacritic mark, above the initial 80nants of certain words which, judging from their effect in composition, were originally aspirated lId.. The Greek language, though it unqueationably indicated the accent at all Dea, BhoWII no marks for it either in the inscriptiODl or in the earlier papyri NevertheleBB, aa early aa A times the theorists had observea that not only every word is stresaed, but that every Byllable bears a relatively higher or lower.

When two conaecrllablea, thus accented. IIII,u,,’1 reapectively App. Hence the common laying that each, wcml bu onq one MCOIlt, meaninjr by it the dominant aacent. See App. J”Aav- and ‘YAau. The above historical sketch of the development of the accentual marks makea it BIllloiently clear that, for practical purpoeea, the ancient Greeks, like modem phoneticians, recognized two degrees of accent: the atreaaing rising? The absolute identity of the circum1lex.

The theory therefore that in.. Uo 85 r. L u raJ, 66 Digitized by Google [‘1’ LIt'” [1]. This practice, which dates from lI, la both historically and rationally wrong. This naturally applies with equal force to the aocentual mark.

The four stope ,. It is atill sometimes used u a diBtinetive mark, u B,TI-‘ whatever. IiMa ancienity marked by a aemicol:! Of the three accentual marks now usedSIb. The acute ‘ can stand over any long or short ‘ syllable among the last three. Just as unatresaed syllables, now unaccented but originally marked with the grave 76 f. Compare SohoL lid Dlon.

Tj “””Wflt. IW -,dp. Stlpflia rI. Uol IIpt. The circum,1’le. For the origin and value of the circumflex lee ‘J6 fF. Proclitics areG. All forms of the article, both prepositive and postpositive ; also N Orov or rn f. The oblique cases of the personal pronouns ; Co The prepositions ; d. These areG. The prepositions. The negation receives the acute when it closes a sentence,.. The term encliaiaia olancient date.

De pron. Enclitics areG. The oblique cases of the personal pronouns 9 7, b. The Present Indicative of clpl and “p. Ti, TOt, m, ftp,.. In connecting an enclitic with a preceding word, it must be borne in mind that Greek accentuation admits of no longer termination than one of dactylic rhythm, that is, no more than two post-tonic syllables can be left without accent Accordingly an enclitic loses its accenta.

After a perispomenon or an oxytone 81 b , also after a proclitic, the oxytone and proelitic then receiving the acute not the grave, 82 b f. See The grammarians teach that when several enclitics succeed one another, each one takes an acute from the nen following, so that the lut remains without accent, aB:. It is also to be noted that an accumulation of enclitics, such as appears in the above example, does not actually occnr; this very example being a fiction of the grammarians who coined it fOl’the purpose Arc.

IupwfaeDhAftigkait, ISberappel. Tonoelitics are syntactically accented or rather retain their accent, and 80 are called ortIaotofle- a. When the 80nant which wss to receive the accent of the enc1itic is elided, ss: TaW’ imv for TaVru imv. A number of disyllabic prepositions are oecssionally put after their respective words. In studying the history of the Greek language, we find that ita gradual evolution has been determined b:r variou8 agencies chiefly internal cp.

Some of these agencies, however, are of such a fundamental and general character aB to require an explanation here at the outset. B18II i. S4lo [lJ Obazaz iD Bekk. AttGlogg is the very frequent paychologioal phenomenon by which an item sound, accent, form, word, meaning, construction, ete. Thus wio, P ok: ImYx-‘ to.. I Cor. I, 8ol1X n Luke 1, NT , a”.

Technically initial P is tI8fM. Bee Thus Fp”,. Par the almClllt replar appearanoe of. Before a conaonant, P-N uncultivated speech changea. I lour. BelL Stud. Spm,s i. In 8amothraoe the liquiclll A , aft dropped altoptber cp. Ai nvAAotIpcG. Between liquids and nasals, a consonant is sometimes phonopatbically developed epenthesis, to facilitate pronunciation. Before gutturals,. Thus l. So still in N CIA ill. I lIaoo. Tohn 6, RAnt I Cor.

Before labials, If cha. In N the combination ,. The results of the two preceding rulea are applicable to Nalao. Note finally that, in the case of. TOur TOIf , inatead of dropping their final 11′ or tT, or accommodating it to the following initial conaonant, popular N speech very frequently inserts a protective or revective -f f. CGeorafllM Const.

On the other hnnd, Fis found in archaic and dialectal Greek 3. Thus the 8I! Sometimes i was apparently blended with a dental into tT’tT or TT. The combination Pri. Preceded by 3 and sometimes by,, , i apPfUently became C App. AMtf lAM,. Initial F was apparently dropped. Iutenonantic j and Fwere apparently dropped. So too in P-N but Bee f. Even Biblical nouns Scripture names familiar to the masses, notwithstanding Christian piety, conform to this rule, inasmuch as a final consonant other than IT,.

Only in ctlltifXlted speech iB it retained. All the above remarks respecting the determination and qualification of gender are still substantially applicable to N. The only aigilal departure therefrom is that names of trees in -or, which in A were feminine, now very often appear as masculines cp.

This change, however, goea, in many cases, back to P times:. N 4 IWISp4por. P-N” cp. GBatzidakia N 4 ‘IIMot. The disorimiDation of sender by means of the Mdi1lfl of the Dominative singular must be l8se”ed for the respective sectiona of the decleDlion Here suffice it to state broadly tbatM7. Thia broad aDd general rule aaaumed. IJUggeetive buis wu alnady dorded by the ut declension which distinguished. O8oe staited, the prooeaa of this terminal dietinction received additional impetua in the fact that in the vd declension numerous feminines in Accordingly in N all mllllCulines end iD So far, then, the above proceaa has not materially deoted the gender, nohrithatanding the long history of the Greek laDggage.

The chanpa etleoted are, apart from oertain loceliame and dialectal peculiarities. They are the relNlt mainly of analogy and uaociation aIao diaaociation of meaDing. The article is substantially preserved in N 23S b. The various cases of a noun are formed by adding certain eMHtg8 or terminations to a fixed part called the stem or theme , of which the closing or final BOund is called the chafV.

The stem appears in its genuine and full form by dropping the ending of the genitive case. Accordingly the stem character of the 1st and 2nd declensions is always a sonant a, 0 , while that of the 3rd declension is mainly a consonant When a sonantic stem is succeeded by a terminal vowel, it undergoes a phonopathic change contraction , and 80 does not show its genuine character On the other hand, consonantal steIns generally show their true character.

In N the lilt and 3rd declensions have been, to a large extent, fused into a single declension, the sinlfUlar of which substantially corresponds to the sinplar of the anclent lilt declension, and the plural to the plural of the ancient 3rd declension Rnli, rlna, TlnCl.

Thus, whenever the terminal BOnant of the nominative singular is retained throughout, the accent also remains in its place cp. CII, Tit. Geuitive and dative endings, if ‘long’ and accented, have the cireumJlex. Nominative, vocative, and accusative endings, if accented, have always the acute. Efldi”ll’ 01 tM Firlll Ikt:lenriora. Generally speaking, in maaculines terminal “‘ is the sign of the nominative singular; in femininea, it is the sign of the genitive singular cp.

P-N Sif! Thus, if we look at the si”fIVlm’ of the above endings , we find that the preva. Accordingly the consonantal masculine vocative -Go the genitive feminine. This phenomenon signalized itself as early as A, but owing to the Atticistic and scholastic spirit of all P-B scribes , the assimilation of all terminal sonants appears full1 established only in M-N speech P-N Plural. In the plural a more atriking and fundamental chanse has taken place.

Such an. Accordina’ly -u met with general acceptance, and gradually supplanted -al. Vita Chrya. Leo Gram. But as already explained, this proceu of levelling became manifest as early as P times and ap’peara complete in B-JL popular speech see IF.

For the accuaative plural see Considering that the resultant common ending -er -ff is greatly due to the homophony of aa and f ripen X. Aa oUrl.. Aiaa-ir “, ‘,tTtT-OI. In declining a noun of the ut declension observe thatI. The vocative and accusative singular agree in accent and quantity.

The ending. The ending “‘I remains unchanged throughout the singular. The ending -a, when preceded by a 80nant or p in which case the -a is called pure , remains unchanged throughout thEl singular cp. ID popular lpe4! Ea, -la, -ala have become oxytone,.. Nevertheleea the paroxytone form is alao fairly oommon In the dialects mentioned in 11, eapecially in Ionian speech whioh III moreover in1luenoed by Italian -icI and -fa ,..

N femininee in That in popular N the whole plural otthe let decleDlion follows the plural ot the 3rd declension, has been already explained in Inflection of N Feminines 1st Declension. Car -,w”. GJti-oS’ rroAt. GJti-a, A. The declension of masculines essentially agrees with that of feminines , the only deviation being thatI. The nom. The gen.

A barytone eubstantiv81 in -ar pure IJMa, 7’oii Xoxa. The popularity ot tbia practice llince H is moreover expreesly attested by Berodian, who in the tn’l’ teaches ll. Hi The form a. Z ‘oNrar, 1IGA. Aor, XtJIJpitt. Some stems ending in.. Qa and.. Qa to -ii, and.. All resulting contractions techDicallyand conventionally receive the circumflex. V Epl’1l D. O’VICO” sa8. NevertheleBB historical orthography requires us to follow the ancient accentuation in forma common to. A and N, as: ;, z,.

The 3nd Attic declenaion, if ever uaed in A parlance Gp. GAor, IInxpfor, etc. Dual Sing. Mark that: 1 all endings begin with a. The earlieat traces of lOch aaaimilation go back to A antiquity itself, and the start waa aPearently made by contracted nOUDa, notably.!

Compare Sept. ON, etc. IN, nijuN. AB to the Plural in P Greek, the two case-endings -ff and -as- of the nominative and accWJative masculine and feminine.

For apart from the identity of these two cases in all neuters fvAa. In I4f1tic stems the process of transition has been much simpler than in consonantal stems. In this manner, masculine. In the! On this principle, however, they ought to write also I 7′. Aa early as H times, a confusion between the plural of the 3M and 2nd declensions arose, and the process has gradually resulted in remodelling many mostly polysyllabic and barytone masculinea after those of the 2Dd declension CP Rist. Singular, after the 1st dec1euaion f.

OD IHixa. Dental Stems “” 8, 6. The accusative singular ends in. AapNk Digitized by Google “”, c””.. Ir,r-6t 0]. Br,r-t I”cl cl htp4w cl aatpow cJ. BalJA’W-f’ A. Further examples: lu,J,l’ A’, If the character is 1′, it is dropped before the ending -fA. Daal N. Plural N. AGm, traXW. Substantives in Theae are all oxytone maaculine, and seem to have originally had cF for stem cbaracter. Also aabstaDtivea having a vowel before fV are often especially in ear-IYA contracted in the genitive aad a.

For the acc1J8ative sing1alar -iG, P writers and inacriptiODl often show a contracted form -ij, “. This form, the occurrence of which in common speech is reflected by the Tragedians and even Homer, has met ever SlDce with wider po:pularity, owing to the general tendency towards a uniform inflection ft’.

Aa a nomiDative endiDg, -M that ill “,. SI t being incompatible with N phonology which admits only a ample final -r f. Mark, however, 6 ‘Y’I”7it nU -yew;; Corn.

B 10a. Substantives in -oOc and -aGe. Jo-tr V. Jour A. ThMe few noUDa have altogether cliaappeared from popular N with the uception of ” Feminines in 4 also « , Gen.

AV”, etc. Ia, 8. KGI D. So further: ‘AO’rv. II58 a B. Kllhner-Bl i. In N re. Mp” reS spear’ , G. Mparor, etc. In N” , Nvr 4 ‘ship’ , A. Jloeria ,,1f ch eoulCll3la. Sqp nS ‘dream ‘ , G. Bti1l nrri’riD r ill the form. A I’, D. Owl; PL. Koerla a64 dS ‘A. Air, aWeS,. DVoOr and Dl’ua:dr. Aol , “. In SohoL Az.

X pci”. Xlpa Crete, etc. Certain adverbial terminations which denote relations of place, appear to act like ease-endings. These a,re- -e. WaaRlI in what place? Stesichorus too ascribes the poem to Hesiod. TpaTrhv’ cpaffKovras. Nevertheless, the story of Stesichorus is incorrect, and with regard to Pindar we do not know if what he did was successful in putting, a stop to the party strife.

But if either was the fact, it was done rather by words poetically arranged than by poetry, and they would have met with even greater success if they had employed prose. The story is told by Stesichorus. Th XiTTOi. Triaixdpf- ovk Ttl 5e r, ipoovr] KaTO. It is therefore necessary to e.

PpvWixtcrTai, Poll. M, Lelongs to Ibye. Tuv, Pliot. Homer uses it of battle, whereas in Ibycus 66 and Stesi- chorus it means spear-head 96 Eustathius on tlie Odyssey : Stesichorus uses the superlative most high-minded of men 97 Timaeus in Athenaeus Boctors at Dinner [on Democles the tlatterer of Dionysius the Yoimger] :.

TvcpAoTfpos a nra. Gl Ibycus carminum scriptor agnos- citiir. TOU5 ‘! He was of an extremely amorous disposition, and was the inventor of the instrument called sanihuca, whicli is a kind of three-cornered lyre. His works are in seven Books written in the Doric dialect. Some time afterwards one of the robbers saw some cranes in the city and cried, ‘ Look! Whereupon they were convicted and forthwith executed, not indeed that they were punislied by the cranes, but rather com- ]ielled by their own garrulity as by some Fury or Doom-Goddess to confess to the murder they had committed.

Even Aegisthus who slew tlie bard ” in olden days escaped not the eye of tlie sable-robed Eumcnides. A proverb used of fooHsh persons. For Ibycus, when he miglit liave reigned as a despot over his fellow- citizens, went away to live in lonia. Yet to judge from liis works they all were surpassed in this matter by Ibycus of Rhegium.

And the love of all these poets was the sensual love. GOl quotes J’r. S8Se [tt. I swear his approach makes me tremble like an old champion- horse of tlie chariot-race when he draws the swift car all unwillingly to the contest. TXVP– Ars Gram. Tnopevoi, AeA. V ilpr]jxivr v. SS -ov: rrpooeSeyfx.

In the form Cadmeis therefore the e is pleonastic, and when Ibycus says : he lay with a Cadmid maiden, lie uses the correct form. And thus niost of the mathematicians say that the word is used of raindrops. Pearson Soph, Fi-ag. Strabo GeograpJiy [on islands that have become peninsidas. Phaech: C, Suid. Report hath it that Prometheus stole the fire, and this tale says that Zeus fiew into a rage and gave those who told him of the theft a charm to avert old age.

I understand that the recipients of tliis charm put it upon an ass, aiid the ass went on before with his pack, and growing tliirstyfor it was summertimebetook himself to a spring to get him drink. But the snake that guarded tliat spring checlied hia advance, and would have driven him off had he not twisted his head about and bought his friendship with the only gift lie had to liand, tlie cliarm he carried on liis back.

The bargain is struck. The ass drinlis ; the snake sloughs his okl age, receiving, they say, the ass’s thirst to boot. Well now ; is tliis tale of my own making?

No, I cannot claim that for mine whicli was told before me by Sophocles the tragedy-writer, Deinoloehus the rival of Epicliarmus, Ibycus of Rhegium, and Aristeas and Apollophanes the writers of comedy. Wallis Ojk Malh. V Tis twv aneLpciiv ij. There may well be one with a motith greedy of strife who shall rouse battle aeainst me. Ibycus there adds how the Dawn carried otF Titlionus.

Ibj-cus speaking of the pillars that support heaven calls them paSivol slender instead of ‘ very great. Ap, Rh. Scholiast on Euripides Andromache [‘j’0u slew not the woman when she was in j’0ur power, but when you saw her breast you cast away your sword and received her kiss, fondling a treachei’ous she-dog ‘] : This has been better arranged by Ibycus, who makes Helen take refuge in the temple of Aphrodite and parley thence with Menelaus, who thereupon drops his sword for love of her.

On the coast of tlie Adriatic there is a holy island called Diomedeia in which he is worshipped as a God ; compare Ibycus Recognition of their identity is first made by Ibycus of Rhegiuni.

Thus Herodian. Il id. So Ibycus is wrong in using the word Ai0va ptyfvi i Libya-born 63 Scholiast on ApoUonius of Rhodes Argonautica [‘ in goat- pelts clad’]: that is ‘ skins,’ whence comes arfpcpiSxTai ‘to cover with hide ‘ ; and Ibycus says hide-clad host for an army that wears skins. G6 Sub. XV ayr. FotI oi IBYCUS children of Pi-iani with the taking of Troy the high-gatedj for all ’tis so glorious a thenie ; nor shall I recount the proud valour of the Heroes, the Heroes so noble whom the hollow ships with their nailed sides brought unto Troy for her mischief, of whom Agamemnon was chief, the Pleisthenid king, the leader of men, the son of a noble father, to wit of Atreus.

Theirs it is to share beauty for ever, and thine, too, Polycrates, shall be a glory, even as my glory in song, unfading. It is tlie birthplace of the Iju-ic poet Anacreon, in wliose time the inhabitants left their city and founded Abdera in Thrace because they would not endure the Persian yokewhence the saying : ‘ Abdera, fair new home of them of Teos,’though indeed some of the Teians returned in hiter days. Aristoxenus Hislories : Approximately years are represented as having elapsed between the Trojan War and the times of the physical philosopher Xenophanes, of Anacreon and Polycrates, and of the blockade of lonia by Harpagus the Persian and the migration of the Phocaeans to Marseilles to escape it.

Eusebius Chronicle : Second year of the 62nd Olympiad n. He wrote elegiac and iambic poems, all in the lonic dialect. He was contemporary with Polycrates tyrant of Samos, that is, of the 62nd Olympiad, though some authorities put him in the time of Cyrus and Cambyses, that is, in the 65th b. His life was devoted to love and song.

He wrote drinking-songs and iambics and the poems called Anacreontea. The former by fortune and power became so great as to rule the seas. Under his roof hved the lyrist Anacreon, whose poetry abounds with references to him. Now the elder Polycrates was not only king of Samos but ruled all the inner seas of Greece. The indignant nurse con- tented herself with expressing a pious wish that the very scoundrel who now cursed the child should Uve to praise him in still stronger termswhich indeed was the fact ; for the God heard her prayer and, the child growing to be the lovely Cleobulus, Anacreon expiated a little curse with manifold praise.

This he did in order to educate liis fellow-citizensand make them loyal subjects, because he believed, hke a true man of culture, that wit and wisdom should never be despised. Plato Charmides : I hardly beheve that anybody in 1 cf. The fame of your father’s family, the house of Critias son of Dropides, has come down to us crowned with the praises accorded it by Anacreon, Solon, and many other poets for the beauty, the virtue, and the pi-osperity as it is called, of those who have belonged to it ; the same is true of yoiir mothers.

Never shall love of thee, Anacreon, grow old or die, so long as serving-lad bears round mixed wine for cups and deals bumpers about board, so long as maiden band does holy night-Iong service of the dance, so long as the scale-pan that is daughter of bronze sits upon the summit of the cottabus-pole ready for the throwing of the wine- drops.

Near Xanthippus stands Anacreon of Teos, the first poet excepting Sappho of Lesbos to make his chief theme love. The statue represents him as one singing in his cups. TraiScov Xfiepov jjpfioaaTO. For his sweet dehghtful music he forgetteth not, nay, givetli that lyre of his no rest even there in death. Declaniations : Sappho and Anacreon never cease to call upon Cypris as a sort of prehide to their poems. The Same : Anacreon adorns the city of Teos with his poems and thence derives his loves.

Athenaeus Doclors at D’mner [on drinking-songs] : Compare what Aristophanes says in the Banqneters, ‘ Take and sing me a drinking-song of Alcaeus or Anacreon. Cicero Tiisculan Disputaiions : Anacreon’s poetical works are entirely erotic.

The Same [on fr. Seneca Letters to Lucilius : The grammarian Didymus wrote four thousand books. I should pity him if he had merelv read so many useless works.

The list includes treatises in Avhicli he discusses tlie birthplace of Homer, the true mother of Aeneas, whetlier Anacreon was more of a rake than a sot, whether Sappho was a prostitute, and other questions the answers to which you ought to forget if you knew them.

And then people complain that Hfe is short. Walz 6. LaTa to. Athenaeus Docf. O lad that lookest in maiden wise, I seek thee and thou hearkenest not, little knowing that the reins of my soul are in thy hand. Schneider, but ois, ci.

Trap” ‘AvaKpeoyTi-? Poseidon is the ‘ cause ‘ comprising the sea, being the cause of ‘drinking’ ttoo-is owing to the rivers and other waters whicli spring forth after percolating from the sea, with which ‘ drinking ‘ is connected the rain, itself ‘drinkable’ [tz6tiixos ; and that is why in Attic the montli of the winter solstice is called Poseideon ; compare Anacreon : Lo!

Scholiast on Dionysius Periegetes :. Tartessus which Anacreon calls all-happy, for that Arganthonius reigned there. Tf : cf. Compare Anacreoii : and oft loud-shouting Deunysus The i becoming gives Deonysus, which is the Samian foimand by contraction Deunysus, like Theodotns Theudotus.

TTriv tuv Kpoiaov rraTepa. Compare Anacreon in the first Book : Lo! Hesych, Soph. I cHmb up and dive from the White Cliff into the hoary wave, drunken with love. E: ni. Ar, Av. Lucian TTic Gallic fferrulcs: But when I remember that aged Heracles I begin to feel reckless and lose all shame to be doing such things at the statue”s time of life ; so strength and swiftness and beauty and all other bodily advantages niay go hang, and 3’our Love-God, poet of Teos, may ‘ fly by me,’ etc.

Light-winged I fly to Olympus to fetch master Love ; for lo I he will not play Avith me as he used to do, but he has seen that my beard is getting grey now, and so he flies by me in the wind of his golden- shining wings.

And that is why Honier calls Argos ‘ much-thirsted-after ‘ as being much desired owing to lapse of time [to the absent Greeks]. And so too Sophocles says. The same sort of thing is said by Anacreon, and possibly there is a reference to it here. Anacreon says : nor in those days did Persuasion shine all silver. I should live to see my country in misery ; Anaereon.

For Anacreon lived some time at Athens at the time of his passion for Critias, and took delight in the lyrics of Aeschyhis. This passage resembles in rhythm : And will you not suffer me to go honie drunk? B’ 45 Ath. In the second Book of his Lyric Foems we read : For ten months now has Megistes crowned him- self, dear heart, with osier and drunk the honey- sweet must. Love like a smith has smitten me with a great hammer and soused me in the chill stream.

Indeed he was actually a rival in love to the poet Anacreon, and in a fit of i-age cut his beloved’s hair off. Aelian Hisioriml Miscellanies: Anacreon did not take upon himself to accuse Polycrates with coolness and determina- tion, but siiifted tlie blame to tlie beloved, in M’ords in which he upbraided his rashness and ignorance in taking arms against his own hair. But the poem on the disaster to the hair must be sung by Anacreon ; for he will sing it him.

Favoi’inus in Stobaeus Aidhulogy [against beauty]: And therefore Anacreon would seem to be ridiculous and captious in blaming the lad for liaving cut off soms of liis hair, in the words : You have shorn a faultless flower of soft hair, [arming your own hand against your tresses]. TfTaKTat he Kapa. ZrjvSSoTos Se fj.

The word o-eico ‘ to shake ‘ occurs also iu the form o-ico, which is used by Anacreon, for instance: tossing [your] Thracian locks Hephaestion Randhook of Mefre [on the lonicum a minore] : Of the trimeter the acatalectic. Charax PhiloK Baccliants prancing: o? Heylbut Ilcrmes 18S7 p.

Avitli an e means ‘ cattle-lifting’ ; compare Homer JJiad ‘A niightily abunda. For it is not an elegiac really, but the first part is a dactylic and the second an iambic, since it has two iambic feet and a syllable, so that the words cpiAfO ov togetlier make a short and one long. T’ 69 Stob. There is left me but a short span of sweet life. And so I often make my moan for fear of the underworld.

For dire is the dark hold of death, and grievous the way down thither ; and morCj tis sure that once down there’s no coming up. Kapwv]- tov 5s wepl to.

He is in love with all who are beautiful and praises them all. His poems are full of the hair of Smerdis, the eyes of Cleobulus, and the jouthful bloom of Bathyllus.

Yet mark even iu this his powers of restraint : and I long to play witli you ; you liave such pretty ways ; and again : To be just and fair is a good tliing in lovers ; and I am sure he has revealed his art at once in the lines : For as for me, the children can but love me for my words and my tunes, seeing that I sing pretty things and know how to say pretty things. Lsd’ h rhv oivov. Conipare Anacreon : Bring water, lad, bring wine, bring me garlands of flowers ; aye, bring them hither ; for I would try a bout with Love.

OTi 5e payus eAeyjy rovs fiapus Kal peyos rh pifj. U7VZ [‘ Dido. I would have you to know I could bridle you right well and take rein and ride you about the turning-post of the course. But instead you graze in the meadows and frisk and froHc to your heart’s content ; for you have not a clever breaker to ride you. ApostoL TpoxaiKnv]- koI twv a. V 5 to Terpa- fj. Well, shall we niake use now of Euripides, Theages? It is he, I think, who says ‘ Kiugs know tlieir art through converse witli the knowing.

Weil then, shall I tell you the answer? Please do. You know the poem, don’t you? Theag, Yes. Soph Ant. TpvcpTis]- Xa,u3fA6iii’ 5′ 6 rijvTi. Troij Kv. Phitarch Against thc Stoics : So when they are thirsty they have no need of water, nor when hungry of bread : Ye are like kind guests who need but roof and fire. Zenobius Proverhs : It is said tliat the Carians when at war with Darius the Persian, iii obedience to an old oracle biddiiig them take the bravest of men for their allies, went to Branchidae and asked the God there if they should seek alliance with Miletus ; whereupon he replied : There was a time when the Milesians were brave men : but the line occurs earlier in Anacreon.

Hence the proverb. Gaisf, merum ed. I both love and love not, and am niad yet not mad. Ky – 6 aKiva. Kr]s Kiva. Some authorities say it means stubborn and it is used so by Anacreon. It is Attic. P ied. Suhliine :. Most produotive and fruitful [of such an effect? And Aiiacreon says the saine : The lyre is near to Aegid Theseus.

Anacreon calls her ‘all-given’ and ‘ people-trodden,’ and mad-tail? Sonie authorities say that Aethopia means ‘ wine,’ otliers ‘ Artemis. Tpofpiv]- Ko. DUincr [on meals] : Telemachus’ tables remained before the guests full during the whole of the entertainment as is still the custom among many Barbarian nations, overspread with all manner of good things as Anacreon says.

So Anacreon of the woman lie loved. Pro quo tam felici ouiine, praesertim quia et victoria consecuta est, in signis liellicis sibi aquilam auream fecit, tutelaeque suae virtuti dedicavit, unde et apud Romanos liuiuscemodi signa tracta suiit.

Miller Mil. Zenobius Provrrbs : ‘ Prouder than Peleus of liis sword ‘ :. Somc autliorities say tliat lie wrote the story of Circe and Penelope ‘ loving the same man. Od, 1. Paus : niss oItos ‘ cf. J ayddri;j. MeAavBov r? IG-i Eiist. Orion This man, who had been expelled from Athens, despite h.

No, no ; just Hsten, and you’ll under- stand. One day Lasus and Simonides were in for the chorus-prize, and when it was all over Lasus exclaimed ‘I don’t mind a bit.

Tlieon Smyrn. Lasus of Hermione is said. For it was at Corintli that the dancing-chorus first appeared, and the originator of it was Arion of Methymna, who was foUowed by Lasus of Hermione. He was the first writer on 1 cf. And one day, by way of a joke, he purloined a fish froni sonie fishermen, and gave it to one of the bystanders, and tlien took a solemn oath that he neitlier had it himself nor knew that anybody else had taken it ; which he was able to do because he liad taken it himself and another nian liad it, and this man had his instructions to swear that lie neither liad taken it himself nor knew that anybody else liad itwhich he in Hke manner could do because he had it and Lasus had taken it.

Plutarch False Shame : Tliis disease, then, being the cause of many ills, it behoves us to eradicate by treatment. Suppose, for instance, a fellow-guest asks you to play dice over the wine. Do not be put out of countenance or be afraid you are being made fun of, but imitate Xenophanes, who when Lasus of Hermione called him a coward for refusing to phiy dice with him, agreed that he was a coward, and a great coward, over unseemly things.

See also Tz. Prol Lyc. Aud ihat is why the Aeolians are so given to wine, women, and luxurious living. Aacros 5 51s eiTTa Ae-yei. Lasus gives her seven of either sex. The Same Xatiiral History: The young’of the lj’nx, also, seem to be lcnown as tkvjxvoi ‘ whelps. Uatdv Porph. These lie as though tlirown down beside her feet, and slie lierself is looking at a helmet which she holds in her hand and is about to put upon her head.

Telesilla was famous among women for her poetry, but still more famoiis for the following achievement. Her fellow-citizens had sustained an indescribable disaster at the hands of tlie Spartans under Cleomenes son of Anaxandrides.

Some had fallen in the actual battle, and of the others, who took sanctuary in the grove of Argus, some had at first ventured out under a truce only to be slaughtered, and the rest reaUsing the enemy’s treachery had stayed behind only to be burnt to death when he fired the grove.

Bv these means Cleomenes, proceeding to Argos, led liis Lacedae- monians against a city of women. MiiL Virt. Now this battle had been foretold by the Pythian priestess, and Herodotus, whether he understood it or not;, quotes the oracle as follows : When male by female ‘s put to flight And Argos’ name with honour ‘s bright, Many an Argive wife shall show Both cheeks marred with scars of woe.

This woman, we are told, though the daughter of a doughty line, was of a sicklv habit of body, and sent one day to the God to enquire how she might improve lier liealth.

When his reply came that she must pay court to the Miises, she obeyed him by devoting herself to poetiy and music, and with such good effect that before very long she had both rid herself of her disorder and become the wonder of her fellow- countrywomen for her skill in poesy. Those of the reference to tlie heroism of T. The battle took place according to some writers on the seventh, according to others on the fii’st, of the month which is now reckoned the fourth and was known anciently at Argos as the month of Hermes; and oix this day the Argives still celebrate the Hybristica or Feast of Outrage, in which they dress women in the shirts and cloaks of men, and men in the robes and wimples of women.

Acconling to Plnt. See also Hdt. Waivos Se eiVi vaol Tpe7s K3. Nine Muses came of the great Heaven, and nine likewise of the Earth, to be a joy iindying unto mortal nien. The fornier name they have learnt from the Argives, wliose countrj-, according to Telesilla, was the tirst district of Greece in which Pythacus, Mho was a favourite of Apollo, arrived.

Nio3;5aii’]- eVtie? K0 TfJ. Apollodorus Library [on tlie children of Niobe] : The only son saved was Amphion and the only daughter Chloris, the eldest, who had become the wife of Neleus, thougli accord- ing to Telesilla the survivors were Amyclas and Meliboea, Amphion perishing with the rest.

Tt]v ‘lovXlSa. There appears to have been a law liere, mentioned by Menander in the hnes ‘ The Cean custom takes my fancy still, The man who can’t live well shall not live ill,’ whereby, in order to make the suppHes go round, all citizens who had reaclied the age of sixty shoukl drink tlie hemlock. Sta TO 7;Si;. Hipparchus, the eldest and wisest of the sons of Peisistratus, who among other fine ways showed his wisdom. Suidas Le. He was born in tlie 56th Olympiad b.

He wrote the following works in the Doric dialect :. Paa: EP. This Simonides had a very remarkable memory. Aristophanes Birds: Poet: Fve written some lyrics to your Cloudcuckooborough, a lot of fine dithyrambs and some maiden-songs, and. The Same JVasps see on Lasus p.

He’s all right ; but there’s something remark- able happening to him. Whafs that? Hes changing into Simonides. I mean that now that he’s old and off colour he’d go to sea on a hurdle to earn a groat. Hiheh Pap. Richards C. Stobaeus AntJiologij : When Simonides was asked why at his advanced age he was so careful of his money, he repHed, ‘ It is because I should rather leave money for enemies when I die than stand in need of friends while I Hve ; for I know too well how few friendships last.

By tliis he implies the possession of great riches, so as to be able to feed many retainers. By ‘ the great Ceian ‘ he means Simonides, who wrote victory-songs and dirges for the aforesaid great Thessalians.

Life below VOL, According to Simonides the word is the image of tlie thing. Aristides On tlie E. Simonides gives harmful advice when he says we should play all our lives and never be entirely in earnest. Simplicins atZ loc. Indeed, when Simonidcs of Ceos made an improper request of liim during the time of his command, he retorted that he would not be a good minister of state if he put favour before law, any more than Simonides would be a good poet if he sang out of tune.

I believe that the truth is that Simonides, of whom tradition speaks not only as a delightful poet but in all respects a wise and learned man, despaired of the true answer because so many subtle definitions occurred to him that he could not decide among them. But not a blow was struck, and the war came to nothing. For we are told that the lyric poet Simonides came up in the nick of time and reconciled the two kings.

Alexander of A] hrodisias on Ihe passage : These words will be clear to any reader who has been told what is meant by the Aoyo?

This would seem to be characteristic of foreign birth and lack of educa- tion. Pindar Oliimpians : Skilled is the man who knoweth much by nature ; they that have but learnteven as a pair of crows, gluttonous in their wordiness, these chatter vain things against the divine bird of Zeus.

Scholiast on the passage : He hints at Bacchylides and Simonides, calling himself an eagle and his rlvals crows. Simonides often employs digression.

Indeed he tells us himself that lie imitates the musical stvle of Pindar and Simonides and, generally, what is now called the ancient style. Longinus the Rhetorician : Simonides and many after him have pointed out paths to remembrance, counselling us to compare images and localities in order to remember names and eventSj but there is nothing more in it than the concatenation and co- observation of the apparently new with what is similar to it.

Cicero 0? Plutarch Should Old Men Govern? Simonides won the chorus prize in his old age. At that spot the city was taken. Scholiast on Aristophanes JVasps [‘ mind you take up the catch properly’]: It was an old custom for guests at table to continue where tlie first singer left ofF.

The guest w ho began held a sprig of bay or myrtle and sang a lyric of Simonides or Stesichorus as far as he chose, and then handed the sprig to another, making his choice of a successor with no regard to the oi’der in which the guests were seated.

Athenaeus Doclors at Dinncr :. Suidas Lexicon : Palaephatus : An Fjgyptian, or according to some authorities, an Athenian ; gram- marian ; wrote Argumcnts or introductions to the works of Sinionides. Palatine Anthologij : The Garland of Meleager :. Catullus :. Dionysius of Hahcarnassus Criliquc of the Ancicnt JVritcrs : You should note in Simonides liis clioice of words and his nicety in combining them ; moreoverand here he surpasses even Pindarhe is remarkable for his expression of pity not by employing the grand style but by appealing to the emotions.

Quintilian Guidc to Oratorij [the Nine Lyric Poets] : Simonides, though in other respects not a command- ing figure, may be praised for his choice of exjires- sion and for a certain sweetness ; but his ehief excellence lies in his pathos ; indeed some critics LYRA GRAECA quidam in hac eum parte omnibus eius operis auctoribus praeferant.

See also Heph. Hiero, Villois. KaKMS ovv prjiri. Kal yap Kal irapa Si. Ancl so tlie Colchian fleece ouglit not to be callcd vqlkos, and Sinioaitles is wrong in this. Simonides sometimes calls it white aiid somelinies purple. And indeed in Simonides’ account the clothini; is tlie orize. U eVf! The story is given by Simonides in tlie Prayers.

Oreitliyia was the daughter of Erechtheus whom tlie Northwind carried ofi”from Attica to Tiirace, there to beget on her Zetes aad Calais, as Simonides tells in the Sca-Fijhf. TreT r The Same Eclogues : For now desiring to call the wind in poetic wise, but being unable to utter poetic speech, I would fain call the wind according to the Ceian Muse. Kitrtnoi oi ‘S. Miller Mvl. The acropolis was called the ilemnonium, and the Susians are known as Cissian, a title whicli Aeschyhis gives to tlie niother of Memnon ; moreover Memnon is said to liave been buried near Paltus in Syria, on the banks of tlie river Badas, as is tohl by Simonides in his Dithyramb Memnon inchided aniong the Dcliaca.

SaTov [which usually are applied to sheep or goats. UiTTanelov, Arist. TiTpdyu vos, Arist. Adam : Plat. Se kuI tovs 6eoi B : Pl. My praise and friendship is for all them that of themselves earn no disgrace : even Gods figlit not against necessity I am no faultfinder ; enough for me is he that is not good nor yet too exceeding wicked, that knoweth that Right whicli aideth cities, a sound man.

Him will I never blame. Koi fjir 5eu Ka. Xfirwv perh. Such burial neither shall Decay darken, nor Time the all-vanquisher bedim.

U 2S9 VOL. Ai’TLO ov Aristid. VliiK Soc. Compare Sinionides in tlie Dirges. Scholiast on Tlieocritus [‘ many in tlie liouse of Antiochus and king Aleuas’] : Antiochus was tlie son of Ecliecratidas and Uyseris, as we Ivnow from Simonides.

Taixvvai compares Soph. Comjh 26 [tt. It is Danaii on the sea, bewailing her fate : When the wind came blowing upon the carven diest and the swaying sea bent her towards fear and tears that would not be stayed from her cheeks, she threw a loving arm round Perseus, saying, ‘O babe, what woe is thine!

Teaj’ icoi. TropcpvpiaKri Nietzsclie : mss -ea, ia. For if the dire were dire to thee, thou ‘dst lend thy little ear to what I say. And what- soever of my prayer be overbold and wrong, do thou forgive it me. A and throngh which Comatas was fed by the bees Tlieocr.

So long as water sball flow and tall trees grow green, sun rise and shine and moon give bght, rivers run and sea wash sbore, ever shall I abide upon tbis sore-lamentcd tonib and tell the passers-by that this is tlie grave of Rlidas.

AU these are subject to the Gods ; but a stone, even mortal hands may break it. This is the rede of a fool. AhIoK 2. An Seni reap. He that can devise all is a God, and there’s nothing to be got among men without toil. Jp’ 26, Agath. XIII may have been originally parts of Books ; for their order cf. Miller Mtl. Pro Iiiiag. It is or he is apparcntly famous.

This poem comes from a Somi of ViHory of Simonides. Crius was an Aeginetan wrestler. And neither was Glaucus hiniself ofFended at being praised at the expense of the Gods who are guardians of athletes, nor did those Gods punish either Glaucus or the poet for impiety.

Far from it, both of them received honour and glory from all Greece, the one for his strength and the other for no poem that he wrote more than for this. Tb Sf avfM popa7s iir’ eaBXols- twv fxeauv yap rj avij. For it is really colourless [meaning an event]. Simonides includes both the victories iu his celebration of the victor. Shortly afterwards, having received a message that two young men wanted him urgently outside, Simonides rose from the table and went to the door, only to find nobody there.

Tliat very moment Scopas ‘ dining-chamber coUapsed, and lie and liis perished in tlie ruins. De Discr. SvvdTOts c. But wlien lie oftered him sufScient pay, he took it and wrote : Hail, ye daughters of storm-footed steeds! Aud yet they were also daughters of asses. J’lrL Mor. Tzetzes Chiliads :. Rh, 3. Movaiov yap fjV lephv evTavda. Whereupon Boethus exclaimed that the place contributed to the stranger’s bewilderment.

For tliere was a chapel of the Muses there, where the spring rises, whicli is why they used this water for libations ; compare Simonides : 1 cf. Tro pT vacTi. The captain of the ship was Pliereelus son of Amarsyas according to Simonides. Scholiast on Sophocles [‘ What is it you have left undone? For tiie scripture saitli ” Whosoever believetli on him shall not be put to shame.

Disc, Ani. E: niss vvv : Wil. Ooiiv xopLr Wil. Sia yrjpas eh oIkov a pe9? Compare Simonides : When the babbling nightingales, the green-necked birds of the Spring Scholiast on Aristophanes Birds [‘What birds arethese’ etc.

This appears to be directed against Simonides, who when beaten by Pindar in the contest, wrote abuse of the judge for condemning a good poem. And it is because in this he said : 1 cf. KoX l,ip. Simonides tries to indicate it tlius : A breeze comes stippHng the sea. Conv, 9. Rein : mss ra iroirifiaTa Koi Tro. According to Simonides, Etna decided between Hephaestus and Demeter when they quarrelled over the possession of the country.

And it wouhl appear that, as if it were a matter of painting, the poems themselves are like the colours, and the dances to which they belong like the outlines which the colours fill.

And the poet who is thought to have done his best and most expressive work in the Hyporcheme or Dance-Song proves that the two arts of dancing and poetry stand in need of one another ; conipare : Come pursue tlie curving course of tlie tune, and imitate with foot a-whirl in the contest unapproach- able horse or Amjclean hound ; or this : And even as on the windy Dotian plain a hound doth fly to find death for a horned hind, and she turns the head upon her neck this, that, and eveiy way and the rest:.

Reinach, 3Id. JVeil y. Tifxriffeis E: other- wise supply eiKhs from an earlier clause ‘ Kirchhoft’, Herm. At any rate lie takes no shauie to hiniself to praise iiis own tlanee any niore than his own poetry ; conipare: And when I shall sing the bride, I know well hovv to mingle the light dance of the feet. G : Zon, Apoll. Ar Vesp. An Scni 1 rh ydp TToXf? Claudian Ldtcrs [to Probinus] : Fortune helps the brave is the maxim of the poet of Ceos ; and whithcr it leada, though j-ou were silent, I should not hesitate to go.

Poor fools they to thiuk sOj and not to know that the time of youth and life is but short for such as be mortal! VVherefore be thou wise in time, and fail not when the end is near to give thy soul freely of the best. Tiffi 2,LfiU! JMllSUrus, cf. For they refuse their aid to lend Lord Bacchus’ butcher-knight to mend. Some explain it thus. The festival being near, the axe had been sent to be repaired, and Simonides, who was then a lad, was sent off to the bhicksmitli’s to fetcli it.

For the ‘father of the kid ‘ is the bellows, the ‘ fell fish ‘ the ‘ crab ‘ or tongs, ‘ the child of eve ‘ sleep, and ‘ Bacchus’ butcher-knight ‘ the axe. There is another piece by Simonides which puzzles readers who do not know the storj’ : Who would not be of cricket’s prize the winner, To son of Panopeus shall carry dinner.

Now it was arranged that any chorister who came late should pro- vide the jackass with a quart of barley. Tliis is what is referred to in the verses ; he who would not be winner of the crickefs prize means he who would not [learn to] sing,- the son of Panopeus means the jackass, and the dinner the quart of barley. Such is the epitaph of the whole force ; of the Spartans in particular this : Stranger, go tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie here in obedience to their word.

And of the seer this : This is the tomb of the famous Megistias, shiin by the Medes beside the river Spercheius, the seer who well-knowing that his doom was nigh, would not forsake the leaders of Sparta. The epitaphs aud pillars, with the exception of the epitaph of the seer, were accorded them hy the Amphictyons. The epitaph of the seer Megistias was put up by Simonides the son of Leoprepes because of the friendship he bore him.

Pah 7. AewviSTfV rhv ‘Zirapna. The Same Simonides on those who died with Leonidas the Spartan : Famous are they this eartli doth covfer, slain here with thee, Leonidas king of spacious Lacedaemon, when they fought and abode the strength of many and many an arrow and swift-footed horse and man of Media. For I prefer the witness not of Herodotus but of theif tomb and of Sinionides, who wrote the following epitaph on the Corinthians who were buried at Salamis : Once, O stranger, we hved in the well-watered citadel of Corinth, but now we dwell in Ajax’ isle of Salamis.

AecoviSov -ntcrdvTas but see opp. B-E, cf. Hence both tlie poet Simonides. Tifxapxos ‘ A? By tlie same Siinonides : When Timomachus was breathing forth his precious youth in his father’s arms, he cried ‘ Never will you cease to long, O son of Timenor, for the valour or the virtue of your dear son. Why dost thou grudge the souls of men their sojourn with lovely youth. Simias, cf. Bechtel Uist. Same : Simonides : an liexameter followed by a penta- nieter, two trimeters, and an hexameter : Here Hes Dandes of Argos, tlie runner of the single course, after glorifying the horse-breeding land of his birth by two victories at Olympia, three at Delphi, two at the Isthmus, fifteen at Nemea, and others well-nigh past counting.

Xepi-rjTaSas Inscr. Hal, 9. The ghost of the buried man now appeared to Simonides aud urged him not to set sail. Wliereupon he put over the grave the following lines : This is he that saved the life of Simonides of Ceos, he who though dead yet showed his gratitude to the living.



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